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The Essential Guide to Understanding PFAS: Environmental and Health Risks, Impact, and Prevention

Updated: Nov 10, 2023

Guest blog post by ConsumerNotice (via Terry Turner).

Modern family kitchen showcasing everyday products like non-stick cookware and waterproof clothing with PFAS chemical structures
Everyday Exposure: Common Household Items Containing PFAS

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances, commonly known as PFAS, have gained significant

attention in recent years due to their widespread presence in the environment and potential health risks. PFAS are a group of man-made chemicals that have been used in various industrial and consumer products for decades.

PFAS Environmental Impact

PFAS have been used in a wide range of products, from non-stick cookware to water-repellent fabrics, firefighting foam, and even food packaging. This ubiquity has led to their widespread presence in the environment. One of the most concerning aspects of PFAS is their persistence – they do not break down easily and can linger in the environment for a long time.

One of the most pressing environmental concerns regarding PFAS is water contamination.

These chemicals can leach into groundwater and surface water from various sources, including industrial discharges, landfills, and the use of firefighting foam at military bases and airports. This contamination has led to the presence of PFAS in drinking water supplies in many areas, putting communities at risk.

llustration of soil cross-section with PFAS molecules seeping into groundwater, with a backdrop of a small community at risk of contamination
Beneath the Surface: PFAS Permeating Soil and Groundwater

PFAS can also accumulate in soil and can be released into the air. This can happen through the application of PFAS-containing biosolids in agriculture or through the incineration of products that contain these chemicals. The long-range transport of PFAS through the air can result in contamination far from the source. These chemicals can affect not only humans but also wildlife.

Studies have shown that PFAS can accumulate in the bodies of animals and disrupt endocrine systems, reproductive functions, and immune responses. This can lead to a cascade of ecological impacts, affecting entire ecosystems.

PFAS and Your Health

Exposure to PFAS has been associated with a range of health effects, and while more research is needed to fully understand the extent of these risks, the evidence is concerning. Some PFAS compounds, such as (PFOA) and (PFOS), have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly kidney and testicular cancer. These associations are more pronounced in individuals with prolonged and high levels of exposure.

Research has also indicated that exposure to PFAS can lead to developmental and reproductive issues, including low birth weight, delayed puberty, and reduced fertility. Additionally, PFAS can be transferred from mother to child during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Our immune system can also be affected by PFAS, as exposure has been associated with weakened immune responses, which can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines.

PFAS Lawsuits

Clear glass of water with PFAS molecular structures in the background, symbolizing invisible contamination risks
The Invisible Threat: PFAS Contamination in Drinking Water

Many PFAS lawsuits have emerged in communities where these chemicals have contaminated drinking water supplies. This contamination often occurs due to industrial discharges, military activities, and the use of firefighting foam. Residents in affected areas have experienced health issues and property devaluation, leading them to seek legal recourse. Non-governmental organizations, like the Environmental Working Group (EWG) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), have taken legal action against PFAS manufacturers and polluters to protect the environment and public health.

In the end, the pursuit of justice and accountability in PFAS lawsuits serves as a reminder of the need for responsible corporate practices and stringent regulations to protect the environment and public health from the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. As these legal battles continue, they may play a pivotal role in addressing the widespread issue of PFAS contamination and in preventing future environmental disasters.

Preventing Exposure Given the risks associated with PFAS, it is important to take steps to prevent exposure.

Here are some measures individuals and communities can take to mitigate their exposure to


  • Test Your Water: If you are concerned about PFAS contamination in your drinking water, you can have your water tested for these chemicals. Many local health departments and environmental organizations offer information on testing and treatment options if PFAS is detected.

  • Filter Your Water: Installing a water filtration system that is certified to remove PFAS can be an effective way to reduce exposure through drinking water.

  • Be Cautious with Non-Stick Cookware: Limit the use of non-stick cookware, especially when it is scratched or damaged, as this can release PFAS into food. Consider alternatives like stainless steel, cast iron, or ceramic cookware.

  • Avoid Stain-Resistant Fabrics and Carpeting: Choose furniture and textiles that are free from stain-resistant coatings that may contain PFAS.

  • Dispose of Products Properly: Dispose of products that contain PFAS, such as old Teflon pans or stain-resistant carpets, in accordance with local regulations. Do not incinerate them.

  • Be Informed: Stay informed about potential sources of PFAS exposure in your community, such as industrial sites, military bases, and landfills. Advocate for stronger regulations to limit the release of these chemicals into the environment.


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